Most information presented here is collated from the book by Thomas Balston

John Martin 1789 - 1854 His Life and Works

(Duckworth 1947)

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To view the descent information and Family tree of the Martin Family click this link



1789  [0] Born (and baptised) 19th July 1789 to Fenwick, a sometime tanner,
    and Isabella, from a land-owning family and possibly
    a descendant of the Protestant martyr Nicholas Ridley, at
    East Land Ends Cottage, Haydon Bridge Northumberland. 
    Youngest of 13 children, only five surviving (John, Ann,
    Jonathan, Richard and William).

1790  [1]
1791  [2]
1792  [3]
1793  [4]
1794  [5] Probably commences studies at the 'free' Haydon Bridge Grammar
    School (founded 1685 by deed of Rev. John Shaftoe). 
    His penchant for drawing and sketching soon becomes
    evident although he is not a great scholar by his own later

1795  [6] John's elder brother William joins the 'Northumberland Militia'
    for the bounty to pay father Fenwick's debts.

1796  [7]
1797  [8]
1798  [9]
1799 [10]
1800 [11]
1801 [12]
1802 [13] 
1803 [14]  John leaves the Grammar School and the Martin family move 30
    miles east to White Cross, Newcastle upon Tyne.  With further
    funding from the Rev. Shaftoe's trust, apprenticed to Leonard
    Wilson, a coach builder, to learn herald painting.  He is
    soon bored and  wanting an excuse to leave.

1804 [15] Wilson does not pay John's annual salary increment so he quits.
    In court for breaking his indenture, the forthright spoken
    JM wins his case and is released from the bond.
    Father Fenwick arranges for his artistically talented son
    to become a pupil of the Newcastle resident Piedmontese
    Master Boniface Musso.  Studies his collection of engravings
    after Salvatore Rosa, Claude and other Romantics.

1805 [16] John draws plans for brother William's scheme for a fan
    ventilation system for mines.  Such diversions in the future
    are to jeopardise his financial and artistic standing.
    He sees Musso's large collection of engravings after Claude,
    Salvatore Rosa and della Bella which establish another
    major influence in print making.
    His, now close, relationship with the Roman Catholic Musso
    family becomes a worry to his Protestant parents.

1806 [17] Moves in September to London to work in the china painting
    industry with Charles Muss accompanied by his father
      This arrangement fails so John sells sketches of his native
    Northumbrian landscape drawn from memory.  One buyer is
    Rudolph Ackermann who knocks down Martin's price so he
    refuses to sell him further works.  Ackermann later becomes
    a publisher of his work.
    John also financially supports brother Richard who is also
    in London at this time with the Grenadier Guards.

1807 [18]  Continues to study with the Musses.  Charles Muss starts his
    own glass and china business and JM commences work here. 

1808 [19] Following some problems with other of the Musses family, there
    is a move to Adam Street West, Cumberland Place.  Brother
    William is also in London to demonstrate his invention of a
    'perpetual motion' machine.

1809 [20] China painting becomes unfashionable and Charles Muss' business
    is bankrupted.  They join Williams Collins' glass company.
    JM marries a friend of the Musses, Susan Garrett and they
    move to lodgings behind the Collins' shop in the Strand.
    John is now working prolifically into the early hours of the

1810 [21] Pupils are taken and a first oil painting 'Clytie' submitted to
    the Royal Academy (Somerset House) is rejected through
    a 'lack of space'.

1811 [22] First acceptance of a work at the R.A. 'Landscape Composition'.
    A great success on exhibition.  His glass-painting at Collins'
    was so popular it made his co-workers envious and jealous.
    They object to his non-apprenticed status.  JM leaves and
    relocates to 77 Marylebone High Street to become a full time
    'painter in oils'.  Association with the Musses, to whom he
    was always indebted, ends.
    The Martin's now have two children, Fenwick and Isabella.

1812 [23] A first subject painting 'Sadak in Search of the Waters of
    Oblivion' is hung in an ante-room at the R.A.  It is well
    reviewed but not sold at its price of 100 guineas.
    The characteristic 'Martinesque' style now evident.
    Rivalry with the work of his contemporary J M W Turner
    'Sadak...' is bought by a grateful William Manning MP for
    50 guineas in memory of his son who had been enthralled by
    the work.
1813 [24] The Deaths occur of his Grandmother, father, mother and son
    Fenwick.  A second son John is born.
    'Adam's First Sight of Eve' is hung in the Great Room of the
    R.A. and bought by a Mr. Spong for 75 guineas.
    The 'Expulsion of Adam and Eve' fails to sell at the newly
    founded 'British Institution'.
    Brother William presents his 'Longitude Glass' to the 'Board
    of Longitude'.  He also invents a 'Dial and Hand' weighing
    scales and JM assists with plans and improvements for
    John gives William 'Cadmus'.  The Bible and Milton become
    his inspiration.
1814 [25] Second son John dies but a forth child, Alfred, is born.
    His Serene Highness Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg joins the
    Martins at 77 Marylebone High Street.  He becomes a great
    friend and future patron.
    Introduced to the American artist Charles Robert Leslie R.A.
    (1793 - 1859) who lends him money when he is struggling.
    This friendship is to become chequered but, through Leslie, 
    JM meets other Americans including Washington Allston and
    Gilbert Stuart Newton.  He also becomes acquainted with other
    English artists Luke Clennell (another ex-Tynesider) William
    Etty R.A. and the Landseers, Thomas, Charles and Edwin.
    'Salmacis and Hermaphroditus' is sent to the B.I. and a
    'Clytie', one of his favourite works, to the R.A.  This
    follows a refusal of a work of the same name in 1810.
    During a period when the Academicians retouch their
    paintings, varnish is 'accidentally' spilt on 'Clytie'
    spoiling it.
      He is upset and 'Clytie' remains unsold.

1815 [26] The financial situation remains poor.
    'Clytie' is re-exhibited at the B.I.  The only painting
    produced appears to be 'A Distant View of London'.
    One prestigious pupil was possibly the Princess Charlotte.

1816 [27] Zenobia, 5th child and 2nd daughter born.
    Works display, contrary to the accepted standards, large
    crowds with vast architecture and landscapes blasted by
    electrical storms.
    'Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still upon Gibeon'
    is placed in an anteroom in the R.A. and is unsold.  Five
    watercolours are at the B.I.  The earliest recorded etching
    Prince Leopold marries Princess Charlotte becoming
    son-in-law of the Prince Regent.

1817 [28] Leopold Charles, 6th child and fourth son born.
    Ackermann publishes 'Characters of Trees'.
    'Joshua...' receives a £100 2nd prize when exhibited at
    the B.I. and 'The Bard' is hung in the Great Room of
    the R.A. but there is little interest.

1818 [29] The Musses convince JM to move to a house more in keeping
    with the status of a successful artist.
    With £200 reluctantly borrowed from William Manning
    (the 'Sadak' buyer), Martin buys a first house 30 Allsop's
    Buildings on New Road, Marylebone at the Musses instigation.
    This has gardens, painting and printing rooms.
    'The Bard' is moved to the B.I. and drawings of the
    Indian style 'Sezincot House' in the Cotswolds, at the R.A.
    There follows a commission for 10 etchings (only copies
    now in the British Museum) of the house.  A sketchbook
    from this time is currently in the Ashmolean Museum.
    Worry over debt is compounded when brother Jonathan is
    committed to an asylum for life when he threatens to shoot
    the Bishop of Oxford.
    Now has a literary acquaintance in John Hunt, co-editor with
    his brother Leigh of 'The Examiner', a fellow radical.  They
    now meet to play chess with their wives regularly at the new
    house.  They are joined by art dealer  J. Belisarco, radical
    journalist Albany Fonblanque and Northumbrian Dr. Thomas
    Alcock.  These parties continue to grow in size and attended
    by many distinguished contemporaries.  Networking
    continues when JM joins several dining clubs with further
    renown associates.

1819 [30] The only completed work is 'The Fall of Babylon', a large
    painting which is sent to the B.I.  There is critical acclaim
    and it proves a popular attraction with the public.  Bought
    by Henry P. Hope for 400 guineas.  This allows debt and
    interest to be cleared with Manning.

1820 [31] Charles, a 5th surviving child is born.
    Again, only one oil, 'Macbeth', is seen.  This is closely 
    researched even down to the tartans worn by the subjects. 
    It is exhibited but not sold at the B.I.  Also sent are 
    two large sepia drawings 'Views of a Design for a National
    Monument to Commemorate the Battle of Waterloo, adapted
    to the North End of Portland Place'.  These are the first
    architectural based attempts by JM to improve the
    He is still upset by the R.A. but, unknowingly, he is 
    proposed for a vacant membership.  However, he receives
    no votes.
    Work is underway on the great 'Belshazzar's Feast' 

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1821 [32] Earlier, JM had argued with his American artist friend
    Washington Allston over their individual concepts of
    the format for a 'Belshazzar's Feast'.  Allston is never to
    satisfactorily complete his own version during his life.
    In February, JM's is hung at the B.I.  It is architecturally
    vast and a full prospectus is produced with an outline
    etching of the details.  Reviews are mixed but the B.I. awards
    a 200 guineas 1st premium.  The exhibition run is extended
    a further 3 weeks.  The work is acquired by, ex-employer
    William Collins an re-exhibited at his Strand premises with
    another accompanying pamphlet.
    This successful work is to be reproduced by JM at least
    twice along with large mezzotints in 1826 and 1832.
    An oil-painting, 'The Revenge' is also shown at the R.A.
    He is now proposed by Sir Thomas Lawrence as "...the most
    popular painter of the day" in an artist's dinner toast. This
    is alleged to have caused his aversion to public speaking as
    he was overwhelmed and unable to respond.
    An argument also ensues with his friend C.R. Leslie
    following John's disregard for the National Anthem
    reflecting his radical views.  JM apologises.
    Leslie is elected to the R.A. and JM grows to resent this.
1822 [33] A pupil, John St. John Long, is reluctantly taken.  Long has
    some success before he becomes a Harley Street tuberculosis
    'Consultant'.  He is convicted of killing one patient before
    dying of consumption himself.  Long's manservant, Richard
    O'Connor, however stays faithfully with Martin until his death
    in 1854.
    A commission from the Duke of Buckingham (who had failed
    to be able to purchase Belshazzar) is for 'The Destruction of
    Pompeii and Herculaneum'.  This is exhibited at a one man
    show at the Egyptian Halls, Piccadilly a private gallery along
    with 25 other works and an accompanying 32 page catalogue.
    This major work involved much research of available
    documentation which JM refused to repeat in future as this
    was stifling his style.  There was little interest in the work
    which was not issued as a print.  The painting was sadly lost
    in the cellar flood of the Tate in 1928.  There was a smaller
    watercolour version later in a collection at Tabley House,
    Also included is a 'Diogenes Visited by Alexander' a smaller
    sepia version being in the Ashmolean Museum Collection in
    Work is concentrating now on Mezzotinting and continues
    for the next 15 years with one or more large paintings each
    In Newcastle, the first exhibition of the Northumberland
    Institution shows 'Macbeth'.

1823 [34] 'Adam and Eve Entertaining the Angel Raphæl' (from Paradise
    Lost) is at the B.I. and 'The Paphian Bower' at the R.A. ...
    again relegated to the Ante-room.  Both accrue some initial
    critical scorn.  The 'Bower's' "giantesses" are, however,
    later approved by following exhibition by Scot's critics.
    Designs are supplied for other engravers.  Three drawings are
    made and two engraved as 'Delineations of Fonthill and its
    Abbey' and 'A Distant View of the Abbey' a currently popular
    subject.  A further drawing is 'Scene in Italy Near the Tiber'
    although JM is never to travel beyond England and Wales?
    William Bewick provides us with a description of Martin's 
    youthful personal appearance and demeanour whilst he
    accompanying him to a Rubens Exhibition ... "he was of
    about middle size, fair, extremely good-looking and pleasing
    in his expression;  there was nothing remarkable or eccentric
    in his appearance;  he was smart and trim, well dressed and
    gentlemanly, and when seen out of doors he seemed to
    delight in a light primrose-coloured vest with bright metal
    buttons, a blue coat set off in the same, his hair carefully
    curled and shining with Macassar oil.  He was prepossessing,
    with a great flow of conversation and argument.  He was also
    imaginative, and kept to his points with a tenacity not
    hastily subdued."  An embarrassing feature was ...
    "a curious habit of sneezing twice or rather snorting with his
    nose, when conversing, and this would increase in loudness
    and frequency as he warmed to his argument."
    JM subscribes to a breakaway group from the Royal Academy
    resulting from his 'Ante-room' snubs but he never becomes a 
    member of the 'Society of British Artists (S.B.A.)' who would
    not submit work to the R.A. on principle.  They acquire a
    gallery in Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, the following year. 

1824 [35] Charles Muss dies and JM agrees to finish some of his glass
    painting commissions for the benefit of his widow.  Financial
    chaos looms when he looses £1600 savings as the Marsh,
    Sibbald and Co. bank collapses.  This was the result of fraud
    perpetrated by a bank partner Henry Fauntleroy.  (He was
    the last forger to be hung in England before a crowd of 
    100,000.)  JM's finances recover within the year.  The
    'Seventh Plagues of Egypt' is the main attraction
    at the opening of the Pall Mall gallery and sells for 500
    guineas.  There are two water colours 'The Departure of
    the Israelites from Egypt' and 'Alexander Visiting Diogenes'.
    The engravings room shows the first published mezzotint
    'Temptation in the Wilderness' and four other items.  'Syrinx'
    is also shown at the B.I. and both 'Landscape Composition'
    and 'Design for the Seventh Plague' at the R.A. (yes ... again
    in the ante room causing JM to present nothing further to the
    R.A. for another 13 years) 

1825 [36] Birth of a 3rd daughter Jessie is the last of the Martin's six
    surviving children.  Mrs Martin, considerably older than John,
    is believed to be ill from now.  One painting 'The Creation'
    is sent to the S.B.A. but 20 mezzotints from 'Paradise Lost'
    are also shown.  'The Creation' is criticised for the out of
    proportion sizes of the humans. The painting is now lost only
    a 'Paradise Lost' mezzotint illustration of it survives. 

1826 [37] Two small mezzotints are published in 'The Amulet', a German style
    of 'annual'.  These annual series become popular for their
    engravings by the best artists and engravers such as Henry Le
    Keux whose 1929 engraving of Martin's 'Marcus Curtius' was to 
    sell over 10,000 individual prints.  In the next 11 years 
    Martin produces 27 profitable designs for such annuals.
    There are eight oil paintings for exhibition (six are smaller
    'Studies From Nature').  The main work, shown at the 
    Institution, is major, 'The Deluge' with a four page
    accompanying pamphlet.  This portrays crazed people attempting
    to escape drowning when the earth's valleys overwhelmingly
    flood resulting from a conjunction of the Sun, Moon and a Comet.
    This scenario echoes lines from Lord Byron's work 'Heaven and
    Earth'.  Martin notes that the scale shows a 15,000ft mountain
    and a centre perpendicular rock of 4,000ft.  It is unsold but
    later reworked for other exhibitions including the 'Louvre' in
    1835 and the R.A. in  1837!  Peter Cunningham, (Martin's
    son-in-law), claimed that this was modelled by Martin having
    a quantity of large coals dumped on the studio floor which he
    then attacked with a pick-axe to ensure a correct lay of the
    rocks for the work.
    The painting was to be sold in 1861 for 150 guineas, 1923 for
    £6 and 1928 for £2 10s!
    A first of 15 large engravings of Martin's principal works 
    'Belshazzar's Feast' is finally published.  The delay is the
    result of Septimus Prowett's commission for the production of
    48 plates, started in 1923 using Thomas Lupton's steel plate 
    mezzotint process, for Milton's 'Paradise Lost'. 

1827 [38]  Mezzotints 'Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still' and
    'Belshazzar's Feast' shown at the S.B.A. Martin's Engineering
    'Plans' for the improvement of London's stinking and Cholera 
    prone water supplies commence and continue for another 20
    years occupying some two thirds of his time (and near financial
    ruin in 10 years).
    Similar schemes were eventually successfully undertaken by
    Joseph Bazalgette.
    Martin's first pamphlet 'Plan for the Supplying the Cities of
    London and Westminster with Pure Water from the River Colne'
    is published.  

1828 [39] The 'Fall of Nineveh' is privately exhibited at the Western 
    Exchange, Old Bond Street from 12th May until September.
    Visitors include Sir Walter Scott, Earl Grey, Sir Thomas
    Lawrence and B.R. Haydon.  Being unsold, this is then toured
    to major UK cities.  A 'The Deluge' mezzotint is published.

1829 [40] Thomas Lupton publishes a mezzotint of the 1820 'Macbeth'.  On 2nd
    February Jonathan, John's brother, sets fire to York Minster.
    Confusion between the brothers then gains John the sobriquet
    of 'Mad Martin'.  Trial expenses are covered by John.  Insane
    verdict is returned and Jonathan spends remaining life in Bedlam.
    Jonathan's son Richard is adopted into John's family.

1830 [41]  A mezzotint of 'The Fall of Nineveh' is published

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1831 [42] 'Macbeth' (1820) is repainted and is seen in Martin's
    studios by the author Sir Walter Scott.  Scott also used
    JM's 'native vale' gorge 'Staward Peel' setting in a novel.
    Watercolours 'Marcus Curtius' and 'Queen Esther' exhibited at
    S.B.A.  Work commences on 'Illustrations of the Bible'.  The
    first section appears in March and continues in parts until
    May 1835.  'The Fall of Babylon' is published as a mezzotint. 
    Prince Leopold becomes King of the Belgians.

1832 [43]  28th March an exhibition of 'Enamel Colours on Glass' opens at
    Collins' at 357 The Strand.  Included are 'Belshazzar's
    Feast' and 'Joshua' painted by Hoadley and Oldfield probably
    undertaken under Martin's supervision.  Martin probably becomes
    associated with Serjeant-at-Law and collector Ralph Thomas
    whose diaries related many of the personal details known of

1833 [44] JM elected to the prestigious 'Athenæum Club' as a person
    of distinguished eminence.  Appearance of a 'Dioramic Effect'
    plagiarised version of 'Belshazzar's Feast' causes JM to
    request an injunction to prohibit its display and the ruining
    of his reputation.
    'Leila' and 'Alpheus and Arethusa' exhibited at the B.I. Hanging
    problems allegedly cause a bad reception and Martin threatens
    to relocate to the 'National Gallery of Practical Science'. 'The 
    Fall of Nineveh' on show in Brussels.  Awarded Gold Medal and
    receives Knighthood of the Order of Leopold (K.L.).  European
    acclaim leads to membership of the Brussels and Antwerp 
    John Constable (R.A.) is supportive of the surly J.M. over R.A.
    issues and compares himself to JM who he holds in the
    ' ... highest eloquence'

1834 [45] Another Gold Medal when 'The Deluge' is shown at the 'Louvre'.
    'The Crucifixion' appears as a mezzotint. In August visits 
    Gideon Mantell at the geologist's home to see an Iguanodon.

1835 [46] JM gives expert witness evidence to Select Committee on Arts
    regarding the lack of correct design in the China Trade and
    J.M's 'Plans for the Ventilation of Mines' was issued to Select
    Committee on Mine Safety.  This would be more effective than
    use of the 'Davy Lamp'.  It incorporated ideas raised by 
    brother William earlier.
    At the B.I. is 'David Spareth Saul at Hachilah' and 'Judith 
    Attiring' plus four watercolours.  The Westall-Martin 
    'Illustrations of the Bible' includes 48 out of 96
    illustrations by Martin. 
    The 'Society for the Diffusion of Christian Knowledge' 
    commissions four New Testament mezzotints.

1836 [47]  Meets Charles Dickens and his new wife at George Cruikshank's.
    Criticises the R.A.'s methods of hanging and retouching
    restrictions to the Select Committee on Arts and is supported
    by B.R. Haydon the R.A.'s most virulent antagonist. These 
    committees, apparently, occupy most of his time.  Cheap French
    imported prints of his work defy copyright and more money is
    being lost.  He recommends that copyright should remain
    throughout the life of the artist and with his descendants
    as long as they own the work.  J. M. W. Turner supports this. 
    Four watercolour landscapes are exhibited at the SBA.
    'Illustrations of the New Testament', again Westall-Martin,
    issued with 48 engravings, 24 from J.M.'s drawings.

1837 [48]  Financial crisis climaxes.  
    Depression looms as Martin cannot come to terms with the
    failure of his 'friends' who have taken advantage of his
    altruism.  The expense of his 'Plans' is devastating.
    However, some 11 watercolours are exhibited at the New
    Watercolour Society.  A repainted 'The Deluge' from 11 years
    previous is at the Academy.  In July, his 12th large engraving
    'Marcus Curtius' is published.
    Brother Richard dies in debt to J.M. near the year end.

1838 [49]  Mrs. Martin tells Serjeant Thomas of her fears of Martin's 
    despair under these circumstances.
    Martin is, however, working again with, in April, the Academy
    receiving two large canvases 'The Death of Moses' and 
    'The Death of Jacob'.  The Liverpool Academy also has four 
    works it occasionally shows until 1853.  The S.B.A. has 
    watercolours including 'Manfred on the Jungfrau' and 'Manfred
    and the Witch of the Alps'. 
    Brother Jonathan dies in Bedlam 26th May.  The family is
    further stunned by the suicide of Jonathan's son Richard who
    has lived with them for nine years. He has cut his own 
    throat with a razor on 5th August.
    The Coronation of Queen Victoria is on 28th June.  J.M., 
    assisted by son Charles, paints the event and asks many of
    the distinguished attendees to sit for him at his studio. 
    This provides several leads for sales.
    Martin's situation begins to improve towards the end of the
    year.  He and Leopold also visit Turner who is working on his
    'The Fighting Temeraire'.

1839 [50]  J.M. now working 'indefatigably' with six watercolours at the R.A.
    'The Coronation of Queen Victoria' is forwarded to Buckingham
    Palace for inspection.  It is not bought until four years 
    later.  It becomes popular as it showed the moment when the 
    Queen goes to assist Lord Rolle who has fallen on the steps.
    Later, Prince Albert visits the Studio and after inspecting 
    'The Deluge', suggests a series of large paintings on this
    subject.  'The Eve of the Deluge' and 'The Assuagement of the
    Waters' are ready for the R.A. 1840.  'The Eve ...' remains
    in the Royal collection at Kensington Palace. 

1840 [51]  Geologist Thomas Hawkins' 'The Book of Sea Dragons' features a J.M.
    frontispiece.  At the B.I. are 'Scenes in Bradgate(?) Park' 
    Again J.M. exhibits monomania over sewerage systems with his
    friend Thomas.
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1841 [52]   Blackie and Son publish the first part of their 'Imperial Bible'
    featuring nine J.M. subjects.  36 parts completed in 1844.
    The census shows 30 Allsop Terrace has all six children still
    living there with Mr. and Mrs. J.M. and a servant Ellen
    The S.B.A. has watercolours of 'Scarborough' and 'Flamborough
    Head'.  The R.A. catalogue has the nostalgic watercolour 
    'Valley of the Tyne, my Native Country, near Henshaw'.  The
    B.I. has 'The Eve of the Deluge' from the R.A. and 
    'The Fall of Nineveh'.  New oils at the R.A. are 'Pandemonium'
    and 'The Celestial City and River of Bliss' 
    The engineer I. K. Brunel runs a high speed test, allegedly at
    J.M.'s instigation, to disprove G. Stephenson's assertion that
    steam engines would not run faster than 15 mph.  They manage a 
    90 MPH average on the 9 mile run with Martin, Leopold and 
    Electrical Engineer Wheatstone also on the footplate!

1842 [53]  'Flight into Egypt' is exhibited at the R.A. and 'Curfew Time'
    (from Gray's 'Elegy') at the B.I.  A last mezzotint with etching of
    'The Eve of the Deluge' is published by James Gilbert in Sheffield.
    Perhaps his eyesight is failing for such work.
    He secures son Alfred a government job in taxes.  Daughter
    Zenobia marries Peter Cunningham.

1843 [54]  C.R. Leslie publishes his 'Memoirs of Constable' in which
    he includes damaging previous letters describing Martin's work
    as 'pantomime'. 
    J.M. and Haydon attempt to produce work for the prestigious 
    Exhibition of Cartoons competition to artistically refurbish
    the Houses of Parliament.  This is a new style for J.M.  The 
    result is a life size 'The Trial of Canute' and 'Two Heads'.
    They are not successful and lead to further denigrating 
    criticism from John Ruskin.
    At the Institution is 'Goldsmith's Hermit' (A.K.A.
    'The Pilgrim and the Hermit in Conversation').  At the R.A. are
    four watercolour landscapes and two historical pictures 'Christ
    Stilleth the Tempest' (now in York City Art Gallery) and 
    'Canute Rebuking his Courtiers' (now in the Laing, Newcastle).
    Martin's financial position is now much improved after six 
    harrowing years.  His family responsibilities were improved with
    Leopold and Alfred as Civil Servants, Charles at 23 is a
    successful social climbing portrait artist in his own right. 
    Daughter Zenobia is married and Jessie is marrying Joseph Bonomi
    an Egyptologist. Isabella remains his PA at home.

1844 [55]  More 'history genre' oils are ready for the R.A. 'Morning in Paradise' 
    and 'Evening in Paradise'. The 'Times' critic appreciates these.
    They move to the B.I. next year to derision from the novelist
    William Thackeray.  Poet Thomas Hawking's epic saga 'The Wars of Jehovah'
    features eleven plates by Alfred Martin from his father's designs.

1845 [56]  The Academy has oils 'The Judgement of Adam and Eve', 'The Fall of Man'
    and a watercolour landscape 'View on the River Wye'.  Thomas' diary
    notes that Martin's mood is now ebullient. Thomas disappears from
    the scene.  The B.I. has 'Morning ...' and 'Evening in Paradise'. 

1846 [57]  In June Benjamin Robert Haydon dies his friend and ally against the
    The R.A. has oil 'Solitude' and five landscapes.  The Metropolitan
    Sewage Manure Company receives its Act of Parliament.  This leads
    Martin into more problems.

1847 [58]  There are only two watercolour landscapes at the Academy.

1848 [59]  Four of John's stained glass windows are sold at Christies on 6th June
    (now lost).  He resigns Directorship of the Metropolitan Sewage
    Manure Company un-rewarded and is in further financial difficulty.
    His studio has only one oil-painting available.
    The Martin's move house from Allsop Terrace to a small section of
    'Lindsey House', now 98 Cheyne Walk.  Martin has his studio on the
    1st floor.  Turner is living 100 yards to the West.

1849 [60]  The move does not affect Martin's work.  
    Summers appear to be spent on the Isle of Man. The B.I. has a second
    version of 'Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still over Gibeon'.
    The R.A. has 'Arthur and Aegle in the Happy Valley' from Lord 
    Lytton's epic novel 'King Arthur' of the previous year.  'Arthur
    and Aegle ...' features a starlight sky astronomically correct 
    remembered by JM from some 20 years previous.  Lord Lytton Bulwer
    however, did not buy the offering even at a reduced price.  He
    publishes more pamphlets one a revised and enlarged edition of the
    2nd and 3rd Divisions of his 'Thames and Metropolis Improvement
    Plan' and the other a four page revision of 'The Plan for
    Ventilating Coal Mines'.
    Brother William, had been frequenting the streets of
    Newcastle upon Tyne proclaiming himself 'The Philosophical 
    Conqueror of all Nations' and 'Anti-Newtonian' Natural Philosopher
    (Physicist) whilst wearing a brass-mounted tortoise shell for a
    hat and a saucer sized medal.  He moves in with JM and their
    engineering deliberations are renewed.  William also undertakes
    some engraving.  All five of JM's siblings had come to London
    before their deaths.

1850 [61]  The R.A. has 'The Last Man', which fails to sell,  along with two
    landscape watercolours.  He also painted a fresco on his garden
    wall (which lasted until his neighbour's manure heap percolated
    through to it after 1889).  J.M. publishes his last pamphlet
    'Outline of a Comprehensive Plan for Diverting Sewage ...'

1851 [61]  J.M.W. Turner dies.  Brother William dies 9th February age 79.
    The R.A. has two oils and two watercolour landscapes.  The B.I.
    has 'The Forest of Arden' (from 'As You Like It), 'Moses
    Viewing the Promised Land from Mount Nebo' and 'Arthur and
    Aegle ...'.  Work starts on the 'Last Judgement'  

1852 [62]  Three works are at the Academy 'Richmond Park', 'Scene in the Forest'
    (aka 'Twilight in the Woodlands') and 'The Destruction of Sodom
    and Gomorrah' (now in the Laing) and one of two (the 2nd is 
    smaller).  These are the last of Martin's works to be publicly
    exhibited during his life.
    Martin complains to Prince Albert that his designs
    for a Goodwin Sands lighthouse and fire-proof ship have been
    purloined by the Trinity Board.
    Work underway on two more Judgement paintings the turbulent
    'The Great Day of His Wrath' and serene 'The Plains of Heaven'.
    Contracts are in place with Thomas Maclean for exhibition,
    engraving and publication.

1853 [63]  Work on the Judgement paintings is continuous.
    Leaves Lindsey House in the Autumn for the last time to 
    visit brother-in-law Thomas Wilson at 4 Finch Road, Douglas
    Isle of Man. 
    12th November suffers stroke and paralysis whilst working on
    a 'Meeting of Jacob and Esau'.  On 26th December, his last
    will is signed with cross.  He is starving himself to death.
1854 [64]  John Martin dies there 06:30 17th February.  Buried in Kirk
    Braddan Cemetery in the Spittall family vault, Douglas 24th
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